Haziran 2012 için arşiv

What is Pneumonia?

Haziran 30, 2012

What is Pneumonia?

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the world’s most frequently reported infectious disease and therefore of great socio-medical and economic importance. About 90% are of bacterial origin. In the U.S. alone are diagnosed each year 2-3 million cases, leading to 10 million physician contacts, and about 500,000 hospitalizations. For Germany, comparable data are lacking, especially as many are AEP cases treated exclusively as outpatients. The incidence (number of new cases) in the general population is estimated at 1 to 11 cases per 1000 population per year in nursing home residents, even to 68 114 cases per 1000 people. This corresponds to about 800,000 cases per year in Germany. About 30% of patients being treated at the hospital, including 10% in the ICU (ie about 3% of all patients with community-acquired pneumonia). Thus, the community-acquired pneumonia led to more frequent hospitalization than myocardial infarction (132,000) or cerebrovascular accident (stroke =, 162,000). About 20,000 people die annually from pneumonia in Germany. The disease caused by the costs would amount to more than 500 million € per year. Among the pathogens are pneumococci , with around 25 to 45% of AEP’s leader, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (10 to 20%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 to 12%), especially in younger people has a meaning. However, these figures are derived mainly from studies in hospitalized patients recorded so that they are probably due to the selected patient population does not reflect the distribution in the outpatient setting. In 10 to 25% of the cases are viruses detected, usually with a concomitant bacterial superinfection . Above all, influenza viruses are common, which often caused by pneumococcal infection is increased. What is pneumonia?

Typical and atypical pneumonia
Traditionally, between the typical, by bacteria such as pneumococci, staphylococci, or caused the atypical and differed by viruses, fungi and obligate intracellular bacteria caused pneumonia. This distinction is associated with each characteristic distribution of the radiographic findings:
•    The typical lobar pneumonia acute onset is, on one or more lobes of the lungs restricted, goes with fever , chills , cough , purulent mucus production, reduced performance status and typical Auskultationszeichen associated. In blood, there are signs of infection : increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate , leukocytosis , elevated acute-phase proteins . pleural effusions are common and pronounced. Most pneumococcal pathogens (are Streptococcus pneumoniae ), but also staphylococci and Klebsiella , Pseudomonas and Proteus . In older patients, the inflammatory signs (fever, typical blood tests) are absent in a lobar pneumonia. The typical stages of lobar pneumonia, a correlation between histological changes in structure and pathophysiology produce are: congestion> Red hepatization > Grey hepatization> yellow hepatization> lysis.

•    Or atypical interstitial pneumonia often begin a lesser extent, are associated with only moderate fever and are usually of the head and body aches accompanied. With this type of pneumonia, the pathogen (usually virus, also chlamydia, rickettsia, mycoplasma , legionella , pneumocystis jirovecii , Coxiella burnetii ) absorbed by alveolar macrophages and thus pass into the interstitium (tissue between the alveoli), which distinguishes them from the alveolar pneumonia . The inflammatory process is therefore in the “framework” rather than the lungs. A nonproductive cough (not pus) and the interstitium nachzeichnende structures on the radiograph are characteristic signs.

•    Falls between these two is bronchopneumonia, which is a secondary pneumonia from a descending bronchitis and developed by a focal, bronchi near the lung tissue distribution notice.
Be said must be acknowledged that the radiographic findings does not allow reliable conclusions about the excitation spectrum in question.
The introduction of antibiotics , chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressive drugs , but also by the general increase in life expectancy, the spectrum of pneumonia in the last 70 years has changed significantly. Were used predominantly pneumococcal pneumonia is responsible for, today, viruses are obligate intracellular bacteria and become more frequent.

Drink coffee thin it is true? L-carnitine cup of coffee, a drink will be able to lean

Haziran 23, 2012

Coffee for the people of this era is as common as no longer drinks. However, who ever drink coffee will be able to lose weight? A cup of coffee slimming, true or false? Now, really the existence of such a diet of coffee, this is Keba Na L-carnitine coffee (L-carnitine Coffee official website: http://www.yandikeji.com) will be able to lean to drink a drink, no movement, no need to go on a diet, relaxed and Xiangshou.

Coffee has a slimming effect, it can be said is a genius idea. It is understood that Keba Na L-360 Slimming Coffee is Brazil famous “thin hall Kabana (Keba Na) health regimen homes latest patented weight loss product. L-coffee, blending the pure taste of black coffee in Brazil and fast Cellulite characteristics of L-carnitine, L-carnitine black coffee is not just weight loss, good weight loss product, is also a taste very good drinks.

L-carnitine coffee? L-carnitine coffee how? A weight loss product is good, the main problems: safety, efficacy, and cost-effective.

L-carnitine weight loss coffee safe? L-carnitine coffee side effects?

Before talking about the security of the L-360 coffee, may wish to discuss the security of coffee and L-carnitine. Coffee, as a daily drink of the global community, its security does not need to say much. Black coffee in Brazil is the leader of the coffee. L-carnitine weight loss methods has always been favorable for consumers, their safety and effectiveness, have been numerous facts to prove. Otherwise, the weight loss of L-carnitine is also difficult to gain a foothold in the competitive weight loss market and become the product of the momentary situation.

Keba Na L-360 slimming coffee is L-carnitine and black coffee in Brazil in accordance with international the NRV nutrient reference value, and gold ratio GB2760 standard high-purity L-carnitine with black coffee made by the U.S. FDA authority validation. Market research feedback showed the carnitine black coffee users have said that the drink after, without any side effects and taste comparable to pure coffee, mellow taste.

Carnitine coffee how? Keba Na L-360 slimming coffee (the carnitine coffee official website: http://www.yandikeji.com) made by the highly concentrated L-carnitine and black coffee with clinical trials to prove both the gold with making the body more easily absorb the essence, the rate of consumption of fat compared to L-carnitine improved 9 times, lean 20 pounds, 30 pounds, are very easy thing.

Reporters in-depth market interview how? L Coffee L-360 slimming coffee effect? “Problem, the respondents are all L-360 quick weight loss coffee, no side effects, L-coffee, fair prices.

So in the end of L-carnitine coffee how much money? L-carnitine coffee prices?

The excellent teacher is to teach students “abilities”; good people, “local conditions” excellent weight loss products, “varies from person to person. Different degree of obesity varies, and different body requirements, such as the carnitine coffee official website to distinguish between several levels, each level or less the same weight-loss, “the same” performance in quick, safe, no side effects and so on. ” differences “reflect the severity of weight loss extent. Therefore, the different levels, using different combinations of products, the price will be different. For example, the local obesity or puberty would like to keep fit, the use of thin shock experience loaded, just 395 yuan, 15 days will be able to stand by 10-20 pounds, showed off the hot waistline. This cost-effective, is difficult to match by other weight loss products.

Health and safety, rapidly effective, cost-effective, and it is these features that makes the the carnitine coffee can gain a firm foothold in a highly competitive weight loss market, and thus to lay their own piece of the sky, has won the trust and support of many consumers.

Anything always points to both sides. Keba Na L-360 slimming coffee (the carnitine coffee official website: http://www.yandikeji.com) achievements, but also attracted unscrupulous businessmen coveted. Therefore, consumers in the purchase of L-slimming coffee, be sure to look for the L-coffee official site, buy authentic is safe and effective guarantee of consumer protection.

30-year-old men than women, more than 20 million bachelor crisis highlights

Haziran 23, 2012

According to the statistics of National Bureau of Statistics population projections, the 30-year-old males than females more than 20 million. The next 10 years, the average annual new entrants to the age of marriage for men than women about more than 100 million people. Gradually into the marriage and child rearing period of 80, after 90 young people, is experiencing increasingly serious challenge to the marriage squeeze. The experts believe that the sex ratio at birth is high long-term social problems caused by the recessive to dominant, the most direct impact of the marriage squeeze phenomenon highlights. [Say] the high sex ratio of nearly 30 years

The next 10 years, the average annual new entrants to the age of marriage for men than women about more than 100 million people. 80, after 90 population suffered increasingly severe marriage squeeze challenge

“You do not have to worry about the language barrier, do not worry not get along.”, “Three months married to hand, ran away to lose a” one year, this is a “buy Vietnamese brides,” the ad. Sale of the business of Vietnamese brides in the Guangxi-Vietnam border, troubled. The prices are also increasing as demand climbed all the way to its current 50,000 to 20 million by the 1990s, three thousand dollars. Among them, Pianhun, fleeing forced marriages events are common, the police in combating trafficking and the repatriation of Vietnamese brides action from time to time made public.

“Some of the poor and backward areas ‘wife famine’, ‘the sale of the bride’ phenomenon, which is the negative consequences of Sex Ratio at Birth.” Caring for Girls comprehensive management of high sex ratio problem the team leader, Nankai University, Population and Institute of Development Studies, Professor of the original new.

Sex Ratio at Birth, also known as infant sex ratio. Natural circumstances, born for every 100 girls, was born corresponding 103-107 boys. Mortality of boys than girls, to marriage and childbearing age, the number of men and women tend to equal. Therefore, the normal values set by the United Nations, 103-107.

The third national census since 1982 found that the sex ratio at birth is high since the country has experienced nearly 30 years of the high sex ratio continues to rise process, in 2008 the highest value of 120.56, the birth sex structural imbalance in the world serious one.

In the 1980s, the only township sex ratio at birth high; 90 years after the urban sex ratio at birth to high at first, second, high sex ratio at birth of three children, now one-child sex ratio at birth increased “original said that China was born to the high sex ratio areas from the east to the west, from rural to urban spread rapidly, covering almost all parts of the country.

The high sex ratio in the recently held national comprehensive management of cum on Key Management Work Conference, the National Population and Family Planning Commission the Ren Wangxia said that in 2009 the sex ratio at birth continued to rise trend inflection point for the first time for three consecutive years of decline 2011 to 117.78. However, the decline is limited, on the whole still more than 10 higher than the warning line. Consolidate the sex ratio at birth continued to decline the task is still arduous.

Original new view, the sex ratio at birth is high long-term social problems caused by the recessive to dominant, the most direct impact of the marriage squeeze phenomenon highlights.

According to statistics of National Bureau of Statistics population projections, the 30-year-old men than women out of more than 2000 million. The next 10 years, the average annual new entrants to the age of marriage for men than women about more than 100 million people. Gradually into the marriage and child rearing period of 80, after 90 young people, is experiencing increasingly serious challenge to the marriage squeeze.

“Bachelor” crisis greater than the “remainder”

The occurrence of “male left” the final deposition in low-income poor, aggravated trafficking in women and in the backward region, mercenary marriage, sexual crime phenomenon

Sex Ratio at Birth in China remained high for nearly 30 years, although the cause of a large number of “marital surplus males”, but the moment people paid more attention to female “seems” left.

“This is the reason for the asymmetry of information.” Department of Sociology, Peking University professor Li Jianxin analysis of birth sex ratio at high long-term social problems arising from the first landing in the remote poor rural rather than urban. Due to the lack of information of these backward regions, the remaining male “crisis rarely entered the public view.

In fact, men and women of marriageable population imbalance with “married marry low mating mode caused by the” marriage gradient extrusion, resulting in today’s society, the formation of two phenomena: the side of the rural backward areas “bachelor” constantly, and one side is a lot of big city “left women” increased.

Jianxin high marry the reality of marriage in addition to pay attention to “match”, the “married” and “men of high female low” gradient marriage mode. A, B, C, D, personal sort of socio-economic status, then in accordance with the pattern A male with female B, B male, female, with C and C male with small female, what is left is a female and Dingnan. “Surplus men” is a passive single, “remainder” mostly personal choice.

According to the person in charge of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, from the civil affairs departments across the country in recent years of marriage registration, the gap between male and female age of marriage is becoming a trend. When there is a shortage when the women entering the marriageable age for men to the low age of female mate choice. Extruded to a certain extent, the further development of other areas – the city I find a country girl, and affluent areas of men find the women of underdeveloped areas. The remaining men, “the final deposition in low-income poor.

Population and Development Studies of Xi’an Jiaotong University, had chosen the East, 369 of the 28 provinces of central and western representative of the administrative villages, older unmarried male population (28 years of age and over, never married) to investigate, make hundred villages the gender imbalance and social stability in the technical report. ”

The report shows that in every village of the country’s 28 provinces an average of nine male “bachelor”, and their average age was 41.4 years old. “Bachelor” the degree of aggregation increased gradually from east to west, western 3.21 percent, east to 2.26%.

Compared to the eastern and central and western regions are at a disadvantage on the geographical location or economic level, the men in the marriage market has a relatively small capital. By the male marriage squeeze more concentrated in the west.

“Marriage squeeze the pain is not only to produce a large number of ‘bachelor’, but also because of the poor to become the main ‘victim’.” Original new, high social status of male mate choice does not exist, and the low educational level, income and less social status low male mate will be very difficult. Realistic objective stimulus and exacerbate the backward areas of trafficking in women, the mercenary marriage, the occurrence of the phenomenon of crime.

From this perspective, the “bachelor” crisis in rural areas than cities “remainder” problem. It is not only related to personal development, family well-being, affect social harmony and stability.

Threat to ecological security of the population

The future of the social class structure, consumption structure, organizational structure and so will be male dominated, the impact on economic and social sustainable development

New, original, stressed that the sex ratio at birth remained high for a long and not simply a severe population problem, it is a major social problem.

The gender imbalance in China’s population development. Direct the fertility of female “deficit” will inevitably lead to the birth rate decline, further reducing the total population and the working-age population size, and speed up the process of population aging.

Long-term imbalance in sex ratio at birth, intertwined with an aging population, exacerbated the irrational nature of the population structure is not conducive to social and economic development. Long-term, “surplus” males there is no spouse and heirs, to create problems for the future of their pension and their parents pension.

The gender imbalance also brought employment squeeze. An often between Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Shanghai and other clothing boss, said it closed down due to being unable to recruit workers in many textile mills. Original new ,10-20 years later, the male labor surplus and employment gender squeeze “will become increasingly serious. Male labor surplus will enhance competition in the labor force market, exacerbating the difficulty of female employment; certain industries and occupations, it may be a shortage of women to be the phenomenon of male alternative; some male jobs because the labor surplus, causing men to fierce competition.

The marriage squeeze a huge impact on the stability of the traditional family, triggering the crisis of marriage and family ethics. Female shortage of marriageable age population, fierce competition and conflict in intergenerational dislocation marriage “such as” inter-generational marriage, siblings marriage may in large numbers, extramarital affairs, third party interference, nonmarital birth, etc. social phenomena may follow breeding.

When the marriage but not marriage the number of men continue to accumulate, greatly increasing the risk of social instability and insecurity. Hundred villages the gender imbalance and social stability of survey technical report shows that the part of older unmarried men of the villages surveyed, involved in the destruction of social security activities in the past three years, the incidence was in the order of gambling, the mob, a partner theft and affray.

Sex Ratio at Birth to further strengthen the discrimination against women. In remote rural areas, women’s social and family status of the males may be threatened, women of the boy and do everything possible through artificial sex selection or bounce, it is not so completely from the shackles of traditional patriarchal liberation.

Original new view, China’s sex ratio at birth imbalance between long-term threat to the ecological safety of the population, the future of the social class structure, consumption structure, organization structure and so will be male dominated, the impact on economic and social sustainable development. Its far-reaching harm, as much as the middle of the last century the population expansion.

State Food and Drug Administration halted the lack of nitrite compound additive standard

Haziran 23, 2012

June 19, 2012, Die Zeit reporter attended a food safety training program organized by the Information Center of the State Food and Drug Administration, 2012 National food service units, and supporting activities as the 2012 National Food Safety Awareness Week, from Beijing, two participated in training courses to hundreds of catering enterprises of Food Safety Regulators, to ensure “to table” from the procurement of raw materials to Houchu safe operation.

Additive nitrite halt to strengthen the safety training of catering enterprises, from food hygiene to food safety, not just the concept of change, a new era. “Secretary Xu Jing of the State Food and Drug Administration food safety supervision and says.

Nitrite was banned

June 12, 2012 National Food Safety Awareness Week in Beijing to start the next day, the Ministry of Health, State Food and Drug Administration jointly issued a notice, hotel, food stalls, snack bars and other food service units in the future use of nitrite as a food additive been fully stopped.

In 2011, a one-year-old girl to eat fried chicken after his father purchased from Fen Village, Fengtai District, street vendors was poisoned. Hospital diagnosis, girls die from nitrite poisoning and then nitrite against increasing demands as a food additive.

Dong Jinshi, the Secretary-General of the International Food Packaging Association, told Die Zeit, nitrite, commonly known as “industrial salt” is a general term for a class of inorganic compounds, widely used in industry, construction. Nitrite as a preservative used in meat food has always been considered a carcinogen.

However, before some of the food service unit, such as selling cooked meat unit in order to make the flesh more fresh or extend shelf life, the use of nitrite as an additive, by adding the amount is not easy to control, but also difficult to achieve residue monitoring, so once use will increase food safety risks, and likely to cause poisoning and even death of the consumers.

To this end the Ministry of Health, State Food and Drug Administration according to the provisions of the People’s Republic of China Food Safety Law and its implementing regulations, decided to prohibit the procurement of food service units, storage, and use of food additives nitrite. Disable a range of food to provide consumers with instant processing unit, such as restaurants, hotels, food stalls, eateries, etc., not including food processing plants and other food production sector.

Show regulatory authorities from the Health Ministry, last year banned the use of flour bleaching agent, in accordance with the new “Food Safety Law, the principles for the use of food additives from the original sound can be used” to “non-essential not .

Compound additives, lack of standards

According to the 2012 Food and Beverage Industry Blue Book “data released by the China Cuisine Association, 2011, the scale of China’s catering industry for the first time exceeded 2 trillion yuan. Time of rapid growth in food and beverage industry, food safety issues are more serious, clenbuterol, dyeing bread, drugs, bean sprouts, poison pepper … all stimulate the people of sensitive nerves.

In addition to nitrite, the additive widespread in food and beverage sector, in recent years, more than food safety incidents and food additives, in particular, is more and more complex type of additive. From a drop of incense “to allow pork transfiguration of beef extract, and compound additives.

Feng En aid, the China Cuisine Association Executive Vice President and Secretary General, told Die Zeit, two major schools of the compound additives in food and beverage industry applications, some experts believe that a legal product should be licensed, some experts believe is due to the catering industry real-time processing, mainly manual, to restrict the use of.

“The so-called compound additives, food additives by one of two or more varieties of food additives, add or without accessories, from mixing by physical methods. This is a legal product, that is a legitimate product, against a also legitimate and legal? In theory there should be no problem, but there is no risk? Because of the lack of specific standards, I do not say that this sentence is not only complex with type additives, including additives should be used with caution. ” Feng En aid.

China Agricultural University, executive vice president of Science and Technology Development Institute, Professor Hu Xiaosong, told a reporter of Die Zeit, the high cost of law enforcement and illegal low cost, has also become one of the reasons for the growing number of food safety incidents. “Now we use the world’s highest costs of enforcement, that is, a large number of sampling on the shelf, but there is no way at this stage because our entire traceability system does not build up the credit system has not built up, and had in the market with hundreds of billion investment to build the testing equipment, and then continued to increase market sampling efforts to clean up the market. “

The Mengniu foundry points dirty and messy food poisoning Stopped to each other?

Haziran 23, 2012

In recent years, Mengniu food safety issues have never stopped to aflatoxin from food poisoning, food safety incidents of the past three years, six, enough to stimulate the consumer’s fragile nerves. Recently, Mengniu the reoccurrence food security gate, as always, once again a public apology. Every apology, to regard the consumer’s trust torn apart, so that consumers despaired over Chinese dairy products, this is deeply hurt.

June 17, a graphic record of the net posts Mengniu ice cream foundry business days auxiliary Dairy knowledge, including the surrounding environment, production workshop area, the health status of the dirty and messy, eyesight As a result, shocking, it nausea. Mengniu Dairy yesterday on its official microblogging public apology and publish the results of their investigations, recognizing the environmental management of the dirty and messy violations, and noted that the plant has been required rectification, the responsible person is suspended from their duties. But noted that whistleblowers reflect sampling failure rate is not true.

China food poisoning each other Stopped?

An apology is always so late on the grounds can not be satisfactory. Food safety incidents are often the media exposure was found, and occasionally regulatory disclosure, corporate initiative to publish the information statement products does not seem to. It’s no wonder corporate apology lack of social forgiveness.

Food in the mouth, regardless of steamed rice, vegetables and fish to eat every day, or a variety of the concept of water and health care products, are related to human health, related to life safety. But is such an important thing or a bad business fraud poisoning strike out of the country’s social opinion torture is still blocked the frequency of the phenomenon of food safety incidents.

Many food safety incidents, sigh: China has entered a mutual poison era. Steamed eat dumplings, fried the headline eat fritters, a filling water drink water … but, steamed buns, perhaps buy a deep-fried fritters, bought a filling water, so China went into a chain of mutual poisoning each unscrupulous businesses are one of them, who can escape this circle. Professional social division of labor, so that each person is no longer an island.