Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ category

Third largest food producer in the world.

Temmuz 18, 2012

The corporate history of power began in 1903 when the farmer’s son James Lewis force in Chicago with a starting capital of $ 60 a cheese trading up. On 30 Offered in October 1988 in one of the largest acquisitions ever in the U.S., Philip Morris, which later renamed Altria Group, the world’s largest manufacturer of tobacco products (Philip Morris, Marlboro), a purchase price of 13.1 billion U.S. dollars for the company. The purchase was in December for an amount of 12.9 billion U.S. dollars.

In March 1989, combined power and General Foods, a division of Kraft General Foods Inc. A year later, the parent company, the chocolate manufacturer and coffee roaster Jacobs Suchard. Kraft General Foods and Jacobs Suchard Europe were merged in 1993 to Kraft Jacobs Suchard. In 2000 the Group acquired Nabisco, a global leader in biscuits, cakes and snacks. Power product logo and a former company logo Jacobs logo on the Tivoli High House in Bremen, one of the best known brands combined. International food company and third largest food producer in the world.

End of March 2007 broke the power of Altria Group, among other things, that the force is not affected by lawsuits against tobacco users from Altria. Force is thus independent again, as Altria has its share of power in relation to its own shareholders in the form of a dividend in kind over. On 29 October 2007 was announced to take part of the Kekssparte Danone, with brands like LU or Mikado for almost € 5.3 billion.


What is Pneumonia?

Haziran 30, 2012

What is Pneumonia?

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the world’s most frequently reported infectious disease and therefore of great socio-medical and economic importance. About 90% are of bacterial origin. In the U.S. alone are diagnosed each year 2-3 million cases, leading to 10 million physician contacts, and about 500,000 hospitalizations. For Germany, comparable data are lacking, especially as many are AEP cases treated exclusively as outpatients. The incidence (number of new cases) in the general population is estimated at 1 to 11 cases per 1000 population per year in nursing home residents, even to 68 114 cases per 1000 people. This corresponds to about 800,000 cases per year in Germany. About 30% of patients being treated at the hospital, including 10% in the ICU (ie about 3% of all patients with community-acquired pneumonia). Thus, the community-acquired pneumonia led to more frequent hospitalization than myocardial infarction (132,000) or cerebrovascular accident (stroke =, 162,000). About 20,000 people die annually from pneumonia in Germany. The disease caused by the costs would amount to more than 500 million € per year. Among the pathogens are pneumococci , with around 25 to 45% of AEP’s leader, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (10 to 20%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 to 12%), especially in younger people has a meaning. However, these figures are derived mainly from studies in hospitalized patients recorded so that they are probably due to the selected patient population does not reflect the distribution in the outpatient setting. In 10 to 25% of the cases are viruses detected, usually with a concomitant bacterial superinfection . Above all, influenza viruses are common, which often caused by pneumococcal infection is increased. What is pneumonia?

Typical and atypical pneumonia
Traditionally, between the typical, by bacteria such as pneumococci, staphylococci, or caused the atypical and differed by viruses, fungi and obligate intracellular bacteria caused pneumonia. This distinction is associated with each characteristic distribution of the radiographic findings:
•    The typical lobar pneumonia acute onset is, on one or more lobes of the lungs restricted, goes with fever , chills , cough , purulent mucus production, reduced performance status and typical Auskultationszeichen associated. In blood, there are signs of infection : increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate , leukocytosis , elevated acute-phase proteins . pleural effusions are common and pronounced. Most pneumococcal pathogens (are Streptococcus pneumoniae ), but also staphylococci and Klebsiella , Pseudomonas and Proteus . In older patients, the inflammatory signs (fever, typical blood tests) are absent in a lobar pneumonia. The typical stages of lobar pneumonia, a correlation between histological changes in structure and pathophysiology produce are: congestion> Red hepatization > Grey hepatization> yellow hepatization> lysis.

•    Or atypical interstitial pneumonia often begin a lesser extent, are associated with only moderate fever and are usually of the head and body aches accompanied. With this type of pneumonia, the pathogen (usually virus, also chlamydia, rickettsia, mycoplasma , legionella , pneumocystis jirovecii , Coxiella burnetii ) absorbed by alveolar macrophages and thus pass into the interstitium (tissue between the alveoli), which distinguishes them from the alveolar pneumonia . The inflammatory process is therefore in the “framework” rather than the lungs. A nonproductive cough (not pus) and the interstitium nachzeichnende structures on the radiograph are characteristic signs.

•    Falls between these two is bronchopneumonia, which is a secondary pneumonia from a descending bronchitis and developed by a focal, bronchi near the lung tissue distribution notice.
Be said must be acknowledged that the radiographic findings does not allow reliable conclusions about the excitation spectrum in question.
The introduction of antibiotics , chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressive drugs , but also by the general increase in life expectancy, the spectrum of pneumonia in the last 70 years has changed significantly. Were used predominantly pneumococcal pneumonia is responsible for, today, viruses are obligate intracellular bacteria and become more frequent.

State Food and Drug Administration halted the lack of nitrite compound additive standard

Haziran 23, 2012

June 19, 2012, Die Zeit reporter attended a food safety training program organized by the Information Center of the State Food and Drug Administration, 2012 National food service units, and supporting activities as the 2012 National Food Safety Awareness Week, from Beijing, two participated in training courses to hundreds of catering enterprises of Food Safety Regulators, to ensure “to table” from the procurement of raw materials to Houchu safe operation.

Additive nitrite halt to strengthen the safety training of catering enterprises, from food hygiene to food safety, not just the concept of change, a new era. “Secretary Xu Jing of the State Food and Drug Administration food safety supervision and says.

Nitrite was banned

June 12, 2012 National Food Safety Awareness Week in Beijing to start the next day, the Ministry of Health, State Food and Drug Administration jointly issued a notice, hotel, food stalls, snack bars and other food service units in the future use of nitrite as a food additive been fully stopped.

In 2011, a one-year-old girl to eat fried chicken after his father purchased from Fen Village, Fengtai District, street vendors was poisoned. Hospital diagnosis, girls die from nitrite poisoning and then nitrite against increasing demands as a food additive.

Dong Jinshi, the Secretary-General of the International Food Packaging Association, told Die Zeit, nitrite, commonly known as “industrial salt” is a general term for a class of inorganic compounds, widely used in industry, construction. Nitrite as a preservative used in meat food has always been considered a carcinogen.

However, before some of the food service unit, such as selling cooked meat unit in order to make the flesh more fresh or extend shelf life, the use of nitrite as an additive, by adding the amount is not easy to control, but also difficult to achieve residue monitoring, so once use will increase food safety risks, and likely to cause poisoning and even death of the consumers.

To this end the Ministry of Health, State Food and Drug Administration according to the provisions of the People’s Republic of China Food Safety Law and its implementing regulations, decided to prohibit the procurement of food service units, storage, and use of food additives nitrite. Disable a range of food to provide consumers with instant processing unit, such as restaurants, hotels, food stalls, eateries, etc., not including food processing plants and other food production sector.

Show regulatory authorities from the Health Ministry, last year banned the use of flour bleaching agent, in accordance with the new “Food Safety Law, the principles for the use of food additives from the original sound can be used” to “non-essential not .

Compound additives, lack of standards

According to the 2012 Food and Beverage Industry Blue Book “data released by the China Cuisine Association, 2011, the scale of China’s catering industry for the first time exceeded 2 trillion yuan. Time of rapid growth in food and beverage industry, food safety issues are more serious, clenbuterol, dyeing bread, drugs, bean sprouts, poison pepper … all stimulate the people of sensitive nerves.

In addition to nitrite, the additive widespread in food and beverage sector, in recent years, more than food safety incidents and food additives, in particular, is more and more complex type of additive. From a drop of incense “to allow pork transfiguration of beef extract, and compound additives.

Feng En aid, the China Cuisine Association Executive Vice President and Secretary General, told Die Zeit, two major schools of the compound additives in food and beverage industry applications, some experts believe that a legal product should be licensed, some experts believe is due to the catering industry real-time processing, mainly manual, to restrict the use of.

“The so-called compound additives, food additives by one of two or more varieties of food additives, add or without accessories, from mixing by physical methods. This is a legal product, that is a legitimate product, against a also legitimate and legal? In theory there should be no problem, but there is no risk? Because of the lack of specific standards, I do not say that this sentence is not only complex with type additives, including additives should be used with caution. ” Feng En aid.

China Agricultural University, executive vice president of Science and Technology Development Institute, Professor Hu Xiaosong, told a reporter of Die Zeit, the high cost of law enforcement and illegal low cost, has also become one of the reasons for the growing number of food safety incidents. “Now we use the world’s highest costs of enforcement, that is, a large number of sampling on the shelf, but there is no way at this stage because our entire traceability system does not build up the credit system has not built up, and had in the market with hundreds of billion investment to build the testing equipment, and then continued to increase market sampling efforts to clean up the market. “